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Category: DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION

iRenata’s Guide To Human Rights Courts

Human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms that every individual is entitled to, regardless of their nationality, ethnicity, or any other characteristic. Human rights courts play a crucial role in upholding and enforcing these rights. This beginner’s guide aims to provide an overview of human rights courts, their functions, and their significance in the protection of human rights.

What are Human Rights Courts?

Human rights courts are judicial bodies established to interpret, apply, and enforce international and regional human rights treaties and conventions. These courts serve as a forum for individuals, groups, and sometimes states to seek redress for human rights violations.

If the laws within a country are found to be unlawful and cannot be interpreted in compliance with human rights standards, domestic courts have the authority to declare them incompatible under Section 4 of the Human Rights Act (HRA). While this declaration might not directly benefit the claimant’s case, it serves as a powerful challenge to the parliament, urging them to address and rectify the non-compliant legislation. In criminal court proceedings, one possible consequence of such a declaration is the dismissal of the prosecution due to an abuse of process that infringes upon the defendant’s human rights.

However, a question arises: why not take the human rights case directly to the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg? Especially when we’ve been informed that if we lose, we won’t be required to cover the other party’s costs, a scenario uncommon in domestic courts. Herein lies a significant hurdle – individuals can only approach the ECtHR after exhausting all available domestic remedies “according to the generally recognized rules of international law and within six months from the date on which the final decision was taken,” as stated in Article 35 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).

There exists another European court frequently confused with the Strasbourg court, particularly by tabloids and occasionally broadsheets. This court, formally known as the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), is located in Luxembourg. True to its name, the CJEU deals with matters related to European Union law. It comprises two components: the full court and the general court, the latter being a somewhat perplexing rebranding of its former role as the Court of First Instance.

EU law encompasses human rights principles, as they are integral to EU law and have been redundantly incorporated into the EU Charter (curious about the Charter? – refer to this post).

It’s important to note that EU law extends beyond matters such as mergers, milk quotas, and faceless corporations. A substantial portion of our environmental law originates from European sources. The free movement of EU citizens underpins significant aspects of immigration law. Whether it’s public health, consumer protection, freedom of information, VAT, employment, discrimination – you name it – upon closer inspection, you’ll discover that a considerable portion bears the influence of either Brussels (where laws are formulated) or Luxembourg (where cases are adjudicated).

Key International Human Rights Courts:

  1. International Court of Justice (ICJ):
    • The principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
    • Resolves legal disputes between states.
    • May provide advisory opinions on legal questions referred by UN bodies and specialized agencies.
  2. European Court of Human Rights (ECHR):
    • Based in Strasbourg, France, it oversees cases related to the European Convention on Human Rights.
    • Individuals, groups, and states can bring cases before the court.
    • Ensures member states comply with human rights obligations.
  3. Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR):
    • Located in San Jose, Costa Rica, it interprets and applies the American Convention on Human Rights.
    • Hears cases against states and issues advisory opinions.
    • Works in conjunction with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
  4. African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (AfCHPR):
    • Based in Arusha, Tanzania, it interprets and applies the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.
    • Individuals, NGOs, and states can bring cases before the court.
    • Works alongside the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

Functions of Human Rights Courts:

  1. Adjudication:
    • Human rights courts hear and decide on cases involving alleged human rights violations.
    • Provide remedies and reparations to victims.
  2. Interpretation of Treaties:
    • Clarify the meaning and scope of human rights treaties.
    • Establish precedents for consistent interpretation.
  3. Advisory Opinions:
    • Render non-binding opinions on legal questions presented by states and international organizations.
    • Guide on the interpretation of human rights norms.
  4. Monitoring Compliance:
    • Ensure states comply with their human rights obligations.
    • Review periodic reports submitted by states on their human rights record.
  5. Prevention and Education:
    • Contribute to the prevention of human rights violations through legal education and awareness.

Significance of Human Rights Courts:

  1. Access to Justice:
    • Provides individuals and groups with a platform to seek justice for human rights violations.
  2. Accountability:
    • Holds states accountable for human rights abuses and encourages compliance with international standards.
  3. Precedent-setting:
    • Establishes legal precedents that guide future cases and contribute to the development of human rights law.
  4. International Cooperation:
    • Promotes collaboration between states and international bodies in the protection of human rights.

Steps To Take:

  1. Firstly, the process typically begins by convincing a domestic court that the case involves a complex aspect of European law. Consequently, the domestic court refers the case to Luxembourg to seek clarification on that specific point of law, as outlined in Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). Using the challenge to Article 6(1) in Latvia as an illustration, Luxembourg assisted in elucidating the legal aspects but left it to the Latvian courts to ascertain the facts and apply the law. However, this route is not without challenges, considering the time it takes, roughly around 18 months, to reach a resolution. In intricate cases, there might even be a need for a second visit to Luxembourg if the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) provides particularly convoluted answers in the initial round. Article 6(1) is a common reference to a legal provision that can be found in different contexts and documents. For example, it could refer to: Article 6(1) of the UK GDPR, which lists the six lawful bases for processing personal data Article 6(1) of the EU Treaty, which recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European UnionArticle 6(1) of the Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates the right to a fair trial from the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law
  2. Secondly, there is an alternative option to initiate proceedings directly in Luxembourg. However, this is only applicable when seeking to challenge European law or a measure directly, asserting its unlawfulness with reference to another aspect of EU law, which may include human rights principles. In such cases, governed by Article 263 of the TFEU, where the objective is to challenge a European law or decision and have it set aside or annulled, this becomes the only viable course of action.

Human rights courts play a pivotal role in safeguarding and promoting human rights globally. Through adjudication, interpretation, and monitoring, these courts contribute to the development of a more just and rights-respecting world. As individuals become more aware of these institutions, they can actively participate in the protection and promotion of human rights on both a national and international level.

Domestic courts lack the authority to handle certain matters, necessitating a journey to Luxembourg. For instances of such proceedings and the stringent rules governing eligibility, you can refer to my posts here (involving a challenge to EU trade law regarding seal fur) and here (regarding the EU Commission’s decisions on the enforcement of pesticides and air quality rules).

However, when presented with a choice, why opt for convincing the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) to address your Euro-human rights issue? The primary motivation lies in the fact that certain arguments resonate more effectively with the “civil” lawyers, who constitute the majority of judges on the court. “Civil” refers to the legal tradition distinct from the common law or judge-made tradition followed by the UK within the EU. While our domestic judges have become more accustomed to grappling with broad EU law principles like proportionality or judicial effectiveness, a supranational court may be more amenable to arguments that challenge cherished common law norms, especially when viewed from a continental perspective.

Additionally, it’s crucial to delve into the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), mandated by Article 6 of the Lisbon Treaty. This exploration is essential as it allows for the possibility of bringing the EU (and perhaps the CJEU) before the Strasbourg court.


EMOTIONAL DISTRESS – DISCRIMINATION – LITIGATION



#humanrights #equalityact #discimination #disabilitydiscrimination #law #first4lawyers #cardiffsolicitors #cardiffsolicitorsdirectory #knowyourrights #fightforyourrights


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iRenata’s Guide To Looking After Your Mental Health


Disclaimer:

The content provided by Renata Barnes, also known as iRenata, and the Disability UK Online Journal is intended for informational and educational purposes only. Neither Renata Barnes nor Disability UK Online Journal is a licensed medical professional, and the information presented on their platform should not be considered as medical advice. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the information shared, it is essential to note to do your due diligence. Therefore, Renata Barnes and Disability UK Online Journal do not guarantee the completeness, accuracy, or timeliness of the information provided. Readers and users are strongly encouraged to consult with qualified healthcare professionals for personalized medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. The content of Disability UK Online Journal is not a substitute for professional medical guidance, and reliance on any information from the platform is at the user’s own risk. Renata Barnes and Disability UK Online Journal are dedicated to providing resources and information to empower individuals with disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health challenges. The content includes general knowledge, personal experiences, and expert opinions, but it should not replace the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The platform may contain links to third-party websites or resources for additional information. Renata Barnes and Disability UK Online Journal are not responsible for these external sources’ content, accuracy, or practices. By accessing and using Disability UK Online Journal, users acknowledge and agree to the terms of this disclaimer. If you have specific medical concerns or questions, it is recommended to consult a qualified healthcare professional for guidance tailored to your individual needs.


Taking care of our mental health is as crucial as tending to our physical well-being. The stresses of daily life, coupled with the ever-increasing challenges, can take a toll on our mental resilience. However, by adopting a proactive approach and incorporating simple yet effective practices into our routines, we can foster a positive mental state.

  1. Prioritize Self-Care: One of the fundamental aspects of maintaining good mental health is self-care. This involves dedicating time to activities that bring you joy and relaxation. Whether it’s reading a book, practicing mindfulness, taking a soothing bath, or engaging in a hobby, allocating time for self-care is essential for rejuvenating your mind.
  2. Establish Healthy Habits: Physical health and mental health are interconnected. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep contribute significantly to overall well-being. Physical activity releases endorphins, the “feel-good” hormones, which can help alleviate stress and anxiety. Ensure that you maintain a healthy lifestyle to support both your body and mind.
  3. Cultivate Positive Relationships: Social connections play a crucial role in mental health. Cultivate positive relationships with friends, family, and colleagues. Share your thoughts and feelings with trusted individuals, fostering a support system. Strong social connections can provide emotional support during challenging times and contribute to a sense of belonging.
  4. Practice Mindfulness and Meditation: Mindfulness and meditation are powerful tools for managing stress and enhancing mental clarity. By focusing on the present moment, individuals can alleviate anxiety about the past or future. Incorporate mindfulness techniques into your daily routine, such as deep breathing exercises or guided meditation, to promote a calm and centered mind.
  5. Set Realistic Goals: Establishing realistic goals helps create a sense of purpose and achievement. Break larger tasks into smaller, more manageable steps, and celebrate accomplishments along the way. This approach can prevent feelings of overwhelm and boost your confidence, contributing positively to your mental well-being.
  6. Learn to Manage Stress: Stress is inevitable, but how we respond to it can significantly impact our mental health. Develop effective stress-management techniques, such as time management, prioritization, and problem-solving skills. Recognize when to seek help and practice saying no when necessary to avoid unnecessary stressors.
  7. Limit Screen Time: In today’s digital age, constant connectivity can contribute to feelings of stress and burnout. Set boundaries for screen time, especially on social media. Allocate time for activities that don’t involve screens, allowing your mind to relax and rejuvenate.
  8. Seek Professional Support: If you find yourself struggling with persistent mental health challenges, don’t hesitate to seek professional help. Mental health professionals, including therapists and counselors, can provide valuable support, guidance, and coping strategies tailored to your individual needs.

Renata Barnes, widely known as iRenata, stands out as a beacon of hope and understanding supporting people with mental health and disabilities. Through her Disability UK Online Journal, Renata has created a platform that not only provides valuable information but also fosters a sense of community and solidarity among individuals facing various challenges. Beyond her work as a journalist, Renata has emerged as a powerful advocate for mental health awareness and eradicating disability discrimination.

The Genesis of Disability UK Online Journal:

Renata’s journey into the world of disability advocacy began with a personal experience. Living with a disability herself, she realized the need for a platform that could address the diverse needs of individuals facing similar challenges. In 2017, she founded the Disability UK Online Journal, an initiative aimed at bringing together people with disabilities, chronic illnesses, and mental health issues.

The Online Journal serves as a comprehensive resource hub, covering a wide range of topics including accessible technologies, adaptive living solutions, healthcare updates, and personal stories of triumph. Renata’s commitment to inclusivity is evident in the varied content that caters to the diverse needs of her audience.

Advocacy for Mental Health:

Recognizing the intricate connection between physical health and mental well-being, Renata dedicates a significant portion of her platform to mental health advocacy. In a society where mental health is often stigmatized, Renata strives to create an open dialogue, fostering understanding and empathy.

Through interviews with mental health professionals, personal narratives, and informative articles, Disability UK Online Journal becomes a safe space for those grappling with mental health challenges. Renata firmly believes that by sharing stories and resources, individuals can find solace and inspiration, contributing to the broader conversation about mental health.

Tackling Disability Discrimination:

Renata’s advocacy extends beyond awareness to actively combating disability discrimination. She uses her platform to shed light on the systemic barriers faced by individuals with disabilities, urging for legislative changes and societal shifts that promote inclusivity.

Renata collaborates with disability rights organizations, participates in awareness campaigns, and engages with policymakers to drive change. Through her writings and online presence, she encourages her audience not only to confront discrimination but also to challenge preconceived notions surrounding disability.

The Power of Community:

Central to Renata’s approach is the creation of a supportive community. Disability UK Online Journal serves as a virtual meeting place where individuals can connect, share experiences, and find solidarity. Renata understands the importance of building a community that transcends geographical boundaries, providing a lifeline for those who may feel isolated due to their conditions.

Renata Barnes, through her work with the Disability UK Online Journal, has emerged as a force for positive change in the lives of people with disabilities and chronic illnesses. By advocating for mental health awareness and fighting against disability discrimination, Renata is contributing to a more inclusive and empathetic society. Her commitment to building a supportive community is a testament to the transformative power of online platforms in creating real-world impact. As iRenata continues to champion these causes, she inspires others to join the movement toward a more inclusive and compassionate world.

Nurturing your mental health is a lifelong journey that requires commitment and self-awareness. By incorporating these strategies into your daily routine, you can foster a positive mindset, build resilience, and enhance your overall well-being. Remember that taking care of your mental health is not a luxury but a necessity for leading a fulfilling and balanced life.


#mentalhealth #mentalhealthsupport #disabilityuk #disabledentrepreneur #ocd #depression #anxiety #stress #ptsd #bipolar #disabilitydiscrimination #discrimation #humanrights


DISABILITY UK DISABLED ENTREPRENEUR
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iRenata -The Inspiring Journey: “Empowering Inclusivity”

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Introducing Renata M Barnes, widely recognized by her brand name iRenata, a remarkable entrepreneur and a fervent advocate for Disability Discrimination and Human Rights. Renata’s journey is not only a testament to her entrepreneurial spirit but also serves as a poignant illustration of the challenges faced by individuals with disabilities in the face of institutional discrimination.

Despite being a disabled entrepreneur grappling with conditions such as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Cerebellar Atrophy, Renata has emerged as a prominent figure in her field. Her personal experiences have fueled her commitment to addressing disability discrimination, even when encountered within institutions responsible for shaping laws against such inhumane behaviors.

Renata’s influence extends beyond her entrepreneurial pursuits, as she holds the pivotal role of Editor for both the Disability UK Health Journal and CMJUK Cymru Marketing Journal. Through these platforms, she endeavors to amplify the voices of those who face similar challenges, shedding light on the intersection of disability, health, and business.

Notably, Renata’s mission extends beyond advocacy, as she actively contributes to personal development and health issues. Her multifaceted approach aims to provide support not only for individuals navigating the complexities of disability discrimination but also for those seeking guidance in business and personal development.

In a world where barriers persist, Renata M Barnes, through her brand iRenata, stands as a beacon of resilience, striving to dismantle discriminatory practices and create a more inclusive and equitable society for all.

Where success is often measured by bottom lines and profit margins, Renata M Barnes, the driving force behind iRenata, stands out as a beacon of unwavering principles and advocacy. With a formidable combination of networking prowess and the written word, she fearlessly employs her voice against entities that inflict hardship on people’s lives.

Networking: Bridging Connections for Change: Renata’s ability to network is not merely a professional skill; it is a catalyst for change. Recognizing the inherent power in meaningful connections, she navigates the intricate web of relationships to build alliances with like-minded individuals and organizations. These connections become conduits for collective action, fostering a united front against injustices that may otherwise go unchallenged.

Networking extends beyond physical gatherings, encompassing virtual spaces where ideas and initiatives flourish. iRenata’s online presence serves as a hub for collaboration, bringing together voices from diverse backgrounds to amplify the impact of shared concerns. Renata’s networking acumen transforms isolated grievances into a collective force for change.

Putting Pen to Paper: A Weapon of Advocacy: The written word has always been a potent tool for change, and Renata M Barnes wields it with finesse. As a published author, she understands the influential force that well-crafted narratives can exert on public opinion and societal norms. Through her writings, Renata shines a spotlight on the injustices that others might overlook or choose to ignore.

iRenata’s platforms, including the Disability UK Health Journal and CMJUK Cymru Marketing Journal, serve as arenas where Renata unapologetically addresses issues that make people’s lives unbearable. Her articles are not just informative; they are rallying cries for change. Renata’s commitment to truth-telling through the written word fosters awareness, prompts conversations, and ultimately challenges the status quo.

Using Her Voice Against Injustice: Unyielding Advocacy: Fearlessness is a hallmark of Renata’s advocacy. When faced with entities perpetuating injustice, she refuses to be silenced. iRenata becomes a megaphone for the voiceless, echoing the concerns of those whose lives are made unbearable by systemic issues. Renata leverages her platforms to hold these entities accountable, demanding transparency, fairness, and change.

Whether it’s disability discrimination or violations of human rights, iRenata stands at the forefront, unafraid to confront uncomfortable truths. Renata’s voice resonates not only through her writing but also in public forums, where she champions causes that demand attention and action. Through her unwavering commitment, she empowers others to raise their voices against the intolerable.

A strategic online presence is not just an asset; it’s a necessity. Enter Renata M Barnes, known by her brand name iRenata, a seasoned entrepreneur whose diverse skill set and commitment to excellence have positioned her as a go-to professional for a wide range of services.

Content Writing: Crafting Narratives that Resonate At the heart of iRenata’s offerings lies the art of storytelling. Renata excels in content writing, producing narratives that not only inform but also engage and captivate audiences. Whether it’s blog posts, articles, or website content, iRenata ensures that each piece is tailored to convey the unique voice and message of the client.

Digital Marketing: Navigating the Digital Landscape In an era dominated by online interactions, digital marketing is a linchpin for success. iRenata’s expertise in this realm encompasses a strategic blend of SEO, content marketing, and data-driven analytics. Renata understands the nuances of online visibility, implementing tailored digital marketing strategies that resonate with target audiences and drive measurable results.

Banner Advertising: Making Every Impression Count Visual appeal is crucial in a world flooded with information. iRenata specializes in creating eye-catching and strategically placed banner advertisements that cut through the noise. These advertisements not only convey brand messages effectively but also leave a lasting impact on viewers, enhancing brand recognition and recall.

Social Media Management: Nurturing Online Communities Recognizing the power of social media in shaping brand narratives, iRenata provides comprehensive social media management services. From crafting engaging content to implementing targeted campaigns, Renata ensures that clients maintain a positive and influential presence across platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn.

Domain Brokering: Navigating the Digital Real Estate In the ever-expanding digital landscape, domain names are the virtual real estate of businesses. iRenata offers domain brokering services, guiding clients through the acquisition and sale of valuable domain names. Renata’s expertise ensures that businesses secure a strong online identity, navigating the intricacies of domain transactions with finesse.

Website Design and Development: Building Foundations for Success iRenata goes beyond digital marketing by offering comprehensive website design and development services, including proficiency in WordPress. Renata understands that a website is often the first point of contact between a business and its audience, and her designs not only captivate but also function seamlessly to enhance user experience.

Published Author: A Voice in Print In addition to her extensive entrepreneurial pursuits, Renata M Barnes is a published author, bringing a unique perspective and wealth of experience to her writing. Her published works not only showcase her literary prowess but also reinforce her commitment to sharing knowledge and insights with a broader audience.

In a world where digital prowess is a key differentiator, iRenata stands out as a versatile and reliable partner for businesses and individuals seeking comprehensive solutions. Renata M Barnes’s commitment to excellence, coupled with her diverse skill set, makes iRenata a beacon of success in the ever-evolving digital landscape.


**Please note: For the people who have known me by my maiden name and have found me now, I have chosen to stick with my married name and leave my past behind me. I am not ashamed of the surname my parents gave me but there is so much hatred and racism in this world that I would rather be known by the surname I inherited from my ex-husband God rest his soul.

I never got a chance to bury the hatchet and I think he would be proud of me now and be honoured I continued his memory and kept his name.

There are also some people from my past I do not want in my life and the internet is a minefield of information, why I am slowly removing all search results with my maiden name.

I do have a story to back my reasoning which one day I will tell. iRenata is my pseudonym. My legal name is double-barrelled with the (M) being the initial of my maiden name. I am an open book but there are chapters in my life I do not want reminded of, not yet anyway. I do keep an online health journal and document my health as a form of self-help therapy but am not ready yet to share the trauma I have endured.

One day I will reveal all!


#irenata #renatabarnes #renatmbarnes #renataentrepreneur #disabilitydiscrimination #humanrights #equality #discrimination #editor #author #writer


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